The menopause and breast cancer 2. What is the menopause? What are the common menopausal symptoms? What breast cancer treatments can cause menopausal symptoms?
Breast Cancer HER2 Status
Breast Cancer Topic: Post-menopausal lumps
Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy in women, especially in those aged over 50 years. Established risk factors include age, early onset of menstruation, late menopause, older age at first completed pregnancy, and a family history of breast cancer. The use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy HRT is also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer in men is rare. Although risk factors are not fully understood, it may be associated with abnormalities of sex hormone metabolism, including those caused by liver disease or testicular trauma, genetic predisposition, and environmental risk factors such as industrial exposure to chronic heat. Non-invasive breast cancer, also known as ductal carcinoma in situ , is when the cancer remains localised in the ducts. However, in most cases, the cancer is invasive at the time of diagnosis, which means that malignant cells are liable to spread beyond the immediate area of the tumour.
Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer
Discuss the evidence from the recent large clinical trials supporting the use of aromatase inhibitors for the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer. Discuss the evidence related to the side effects and tolerability of aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer. Discuss the potential mechanisms of resistance to tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and potential strategies to overcome them. Tamoxifen has been the mainstay of endocrine treatment for early-stage breast cancer in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women for many years. Since , the results of several large, randomized, clinical trials have provided evidence that aromatase inhibitor AI therapy, either upfront or in sequence after tamoxifen, improves disease-free survival and, in certain patients, overall survival for postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
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